Anim. Most natural-ingredient, dry laboratory-animal diets that contain preservatives and are stored properly can be used up to about 6 months after manufacture. J. Natl. Furthermore, some rodents or swine housed in compatible groups seek each other out and share cage space by huddling together along walls, lying on each other during periods of rest, or gathering in areas of retreat (White 1990; White and others 1989). White, W. J. Recent Sow Housing Writings & Presentations 5. When social animals must be housed singly: Environmental and/or food enrichment, exercise/release into a larger enclosure, and/or human interaction will be provided, unless scientifically contraindicated. 2:50-63. 1995. Use of cage space by guinea pigs. J. Reprod. multiply by 0.09. c Larger animals might require more space to meet performance standards (see text). TABLE 2.2 Recommended Space for Rabbits, Cats, Dogs, Nonhuman Primates, and Birds. Careful attention should be paid to quantities received in each shipment, and stock should be rotated so that the oldest food is used first. Solving a tough problem. ed. Williams-Blangero, S. 1993. A practical assessment of a nonhuman primate exercise program. 1982. Lab. Cleaning utensils should be assigned to specific areas and should not be transported between areas that pose different risks of contamination. © 2021 National Academy of Sciences. Purified and chemically defined diets are often less stable than natural-ingredient diets, and their shelf-life is usually less than 6 months (Fullerton and others 1982); these diets should be stored at 4ºC (39ºF) or lower. Kaufman, J. E.. 1987. The successful operation of any HVAC system requires regular maintenance and evaluation, including measurement of its function at the level of the secondary enclosure. 32:603-608. 62:233-241. International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice. 1986. An animal that assists an individual with a disability is not considered a "pet." Moderate restriction of calorie and protein intakes for clinical or husbandry reasons has been shown to increase longevity and decrease obesity, reproduction, and cancer rates in a number of species (Ames and others 1993; Keenan and others 1994). for the Practicing Vet. Several methods of monitoring have been developed that use immunologic, biochemical, and molecular techniques (Cramer 1983; Groen 1977; Hoffman and others 1980; Russell and others 1993). Structures and Environment Handbook. 1986. Which of the following is NOT a good justification for housing animals by themselves? Space for group-housed animals should be based on individual species needs, behavior, compatibility of the animals, numbers of animals, and goals of the housing situation. ILAR News 27(3):11-12. They should include pertinent clinical and diagnostic information, date of inoculations, history of surgical procedures and postoperative care, and information on experimental use. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. I-P edition. which could be life-threatening. 1993. Allow observation of the animals with minimal disturbance of them. The federal government and most states and municipalities have regulations controlling disposal of hazardous wastes. The committee discusses animal procurement and transportation, disease and preventive medicine, and surgery. To determine if an assistance animal request should be granted, you can ask two questions if the need for the assistance animal is not obvious: You cannot ask for any documentation for the animal, require that it demonstrate its task or ask about the nature of the person’s disability. Training of animals to cooperate with veterinary and investigative personnel and to enter chutes or cages for restraint or transport. ed. For pens or runs, frequent flushing with water and periodic use of detergents or disinfectants are usually appropriate to maintain sufficiently clean surfaces. Surv. Van Dyne. multiply by 6.45. c To convert inches to centimeters. Exp. They should be constructed of durable materials that resist corrosion and withstand rough handling without chipping, cracking, or rusting. 1973. Proc. Zoo Biology 2:179-190. Lab. Nutrient Requirements of Dogs. 45:559-565. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag. 1982. Sci. Festing, M. F. W. 1979. MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. In selecting a suitable social environment, attention should be given to whether the animals are naturally territorial or communal and whether they should be housed singly, in pairs, or in groups. Institutional policies and responsibilities. Animal bedding is a controllable environmental factor that can influence experimental data and animal well-being. Stadium Crossing – Said they do allow pets for some units but couldn’t give me any further information. Several publications provide rules developed by international committees for standardized nomenclature of outbred rodents and rabbits (Festing and others 1972), inbred rats (Festing and Staats 1973; Gill 1984; NRC 1992a), inbred mice (International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice 1981 a,b,c), and transgenic animals (NRC 1992b). Identification cards should include the source of the animal, the strain or stock, names and locations of the responsible investigators, pertinent dates, and protocol number, when applicable. Lab. Husbandry practices, such as bedding-change and cage-washing frequency, and the preparation of recycled air used are sufficient to minimize toxic gases and odors. Environments should be designed to accommodate animals that make noise, rather than resorting to methods of noise reduction. The timing of pen or run cleaning should take into account normal behavioral and physiologic processes of the animals; for example, the gastrocolic reflex in meal-fed animals results in defecation shortly after food consumption. NRC (National Research Council). This is the case even if you have a no-pets policy. Behav. 22:40-92. Identification and genetic monitoring of mouse inbred strains using biomedical polymorphisms. Behav. Acad. The homozygosity of these animals enhances the reproducibility and comparability of some experimental data. A report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Transgenic Nomenclature. Pp.19-36 in The Experimental Animal in Biomedical Research. Pp.335-347 in Physiology of Digestion and Metabolism in the Ruminant. Path. Behavioral responses of longtailed macaques to different cage sizes and common laboratory experiences. 21:81-107. Larson, R. E., and R. O. Hegg. 20 pp. Pp.609-628 in Pathobiology of the Aging Rat, vol.2, W. Notter, D. L. Dungworth, and C. C. Capen, eds. The frequency and intensity of cleaning and disinfection should depend on what is needed to provide a healthy environment for an animal, in accord with its normal behavior and physiologic characteristics. ed. Homberger, F. R., Z. Pataki, and P. E. Thomann. Am. 43:460-465. Cleaning utensils themselves should be cleaned regularly and should be constructed of materials that resist corrosion. J. Comp. Sanitation—the maintenance of conditions conducive to health—involves bedding change (as appropriate), cleaning, and disinfection. Sci. Precautions should be taken if perishable items—such as meats, fruits, and vegetables—are fed, because storage conditions are potential sources of contamination and can lead to variation in food quality. Kempthorne, O., 1957. Pesticides can induce toxic effects on research animals and interfere with experimental procedures (Ohio Cooperative Extension Service 1987a,b), and they should be used in animal areas only when necessary. Fidler, I. J. Am. Although it is effective in many animal housing settings, the guideline does not take into account the range of possible heat loads; the species, size, and number of animals involved; the type of bedding or frequency of cage-changing; the room dimensions; or the efficiency of air distribution from the secondary to the primary enclosure. After all animals leave, the area can be thoroughly cleaned before bringing in a new group. Effect of audiogenic stimulation on genital function and reproduction. A report of the Committee on Animal Nutrition. Worn items should be replaced regularly. Sci. 45:527-532. CFR (Code of Federal Regulations). Weichbrod, R. H., J. E. Hall, R. C. Simmonds, and C. F. Cisar. Am. The animals can either be cattle, goats, rabbits, pigs, ho Agriculture: major reasons for housing farm animals | Naijapep | knowledge and wealth through information, simplified! 1994. In some species (such as nonhuman primates) and on some occasions, varying nutritionally balanced diets and providing "treats," including fresh vegetables, can be appropriate and improve well-being. Vol.2: Laboratory Animal Facilities, T. Ruys, ed. Proc. provide some assurance of regulatory compliance and safety. Such animal records are essential for genetic management and historical assessments of colonies. The guideline of 10-15 fresh air changes per hour has been used for secondary enclosures for many years and is considered an acceptable general standard. Pest Control :46-50. Pp.423-432 in Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 4. Whenever it is appropriate, social animals should be housed in pairs or groups, rather than individually, provided that such housing is not contraindicated by the protocol in question and does not pose an undue risk to the animals (Brain and Bention 1979). Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. Generally, the purpose of these systems is to minimize the spread of airborne disease agents between cages or groups of cages. Anim. Anim. Bedding should be used in amounts sufficient to keep animals dry between cage changes, and, in the case of small laboratory animals, care should be taken to keep the bedding from coming into contact with the water tube, because such contact could cause leakage of water into the cage. If you decide to allow pets, you can still restrict certain types or sizes of animals. The role of environmental ammonia in respiratory mycoplasmosis of rats. 1978. North Carolina. Vol.1: A Survey of Scientific and Ethical Issues for Investigators. 1977. Solid-bottom caging, with bedding, is therefore recommended for rodents. Investigators whose animals might be exposed to pesticides should be consulted before pesticides are used. Increasing welfare of laboratory rats with the help of spatially enhanced cages. 35:1125-1132. Aggression and social controls in rhesus monkey (Mococo mulatra) groups revealed in group formation studies. All primary enclosures should be kept in good repair to prevent escape of or injury to animals, promote physical comfort, and facilitate sanitation and servicing.
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