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Appositives act as synonyms for a … Witness: “We invited the strippers, JFK and Stalin.”, Read more: …A Yes, I did. Does the sentence still make sense if you reverse the order of the words? Without the comma, it would seem that multiple Scrooges were raking in the coins. As you may recall from above, an independent clause has a subject and a verb and can stand on its own as a sentence. It’s most easily explained by example: “Now is the winter of our discontent made glorious summer…” (Shakespeare: Richard III, in case you don’t recognise it.) Notify your doctor if you experience dizziness, fainting spells, nausea, vomiting, weak or rapid pulse, or difficulty breathing. In this case, commas indicate pauses. 11 reasons the English language is impossible to learn, Another example: “Yes, I saw a duck when I went running.”, Another clever meme shows the problem with incorrect placement of this comma. Grammar. Usually, commas surround a non-essential clause or phrase. Don’t offset a phrase that gives necessary information to the sentence. For example: Hi, Maria. Read more: The answer depends on how you are using or. 5 Writing "Rules" That Are Really Guidelines, Tone vs. How did something happen? I moved to the US from China — here are the biggest cultural differences I've noticed between the 2 countries, Bath & Body Works is now a standalone company — we visited a store and saw why it's been L Brands' secret weapon, CBA and NAB pass on RBA interest rate cut in full, but ANZ and Westpac defy Treasurer Josh Frydenberg's orders, How to watch Netflix on your TV in 5 different ways, The incredible story of Ferrari's 72-year journey from an upstart racing team to a $27 billion luxury brand. Commas don’t just signify pauses in a sentence – precise rules govern when to use this punctuation mark. If attribution comes before the quote, place the comma outside the quotations marks: If attribution comes after the quote, put the comma inside the quotation marks: Another example: “Cleveland, Ohio, is a great city.”. With coordinate adjectives you can put "and" between them and the meaning is the same. I think also prosody plays a part in it. Since “I saw the mean, big duck ” and “I saw the big and mean duck” both sound fine, you need the comma. Also insert a comma when “however” starts a sentence, too. Consequently, we insert a comma. Should you use a comma before or? 1. No, I’m not open–not yet. In fact, precise rules govern when to use this punctuation mark. (You should use a comma here as neither the introduction nor the quotation is an independent clause.) What’s more, it has a much cleaner typographical appearance. A comma splice incorrectly joins two independent clauses, like: That sentence contains a comma splice, and therefore it is incorrect. Always place a comma before or when it begins an independent clause, but if it begins a dependent clause, don’t. Even though the phrase “that attacked me” describes “the duck,” it provides essential information to the sentence. This hugely depends on context. Examples. The rule is – either have the commas both before and after a name, or don’t add it at all. (Rule 4) You can only use a comma (i.e., not a colon) after a quotation. In the above sentence, a comma tells you that Scrooge and the extended McDuck clan are to jump in a pot of money. Should you use a comma before or? Okay, let me try to break it down. For example, both of these examples can be considered correct: We can invest our savings in stocks, bonds, or real estate. If we were to eliminate the second “I” from that example, the second clause would lack a subject, making it not a clause at all. Two adjectives are coordinate if you can answer yes to both of these questions: 1. If you have an introductory word (or two) that is being used as an adverb (usually answers the question of when, where, why, or to what degree), then no comma. Granddad looked at me over the top of his glasses and said, "I've seen it all and done it all. When each element separated by or is just one or two words, the reader will have little trouble mentally sorting things out with whichever style you choose. That’s different from “said,” … You should use a comma between two adjectives when they are coordinate adjectives. For example: The long, metal pole. “Stop clubbing, baby seals.” (Or rather, to stay on theme:“Stop clubbing, baby ducks.”). Use a Comma After an Introductory Word or Phrase. Don’t let the length of an appositive scare you. Commas always follow these clauses at the start of a sentence. You may want to use a comma in a series of three or more things. Here's what it was like. “A Rule without Exception”: Chicago, 1906. In a way, they allow you to say just a little bit more in one, complete sentence. Introductory phrases can also be spotted a mile away if they contain gerunds. Many adverbs end in “ly” and answer the question “how?” How did someone do something? This is why there should be a comma before or. When followed, they lay the groundwork for clear written communication. Put whatever comes first in quotes, end that quote with a comma, and then end the attribution with a comma. …Q Were you the only one there? You don’t need to add a comma when the sentence mentions only the month and year: Read more: As we can see, commas always want to be the ones introducing the pre-amble to a sentence. I think there's a trend these todays toward a lighter use of commas. The question of whether to put a comma before quotes when quoting from a document came up on Facebook. When the words after yes and no “echo” the words of the question, use a comma. “Stop clubbing baby seals” reads like an order to desist harming infant mammals of the seal variety. If a quoted question ends in midsentence, the question mark replaces a comma. This sort of mistake matters in English because it can be very confusing for the reader. For example, “I lay under the powerful summer sun.” “Powerful” describes “summer sun” as a whole phrase. Otherwise, no one would know why the duck scared your friend. A comma (,) signifies a short pause in a sentence. We’ve compiled a list of all the times when you’ll need the mighty comma – and we wrote sentences about ducks to show you their proper use: Rebecca Aydin and Christina Sterbenz contributed to a previous version of this post. The company should check whether the contractor has the required experience. I know I have a very fuzzy way of determining whether a comma is actually needed and prefer to use them as little as possible.. As mentioned above, when you are listing three or more items, commas should separate each element of the list. If someone is reading out the text/e-mail conversation (you say “blah,” she says “blah blah,” then you say “blah blah blah”), would there be commas before the quotes? The rule outlined here in #2 is valuable to avoid misinterpretation. Now, I have seen sources that say a comma should never precede “because,” but I think this guideline ignores an important distinction in meaning. You see, Hi, John is different from Dear John because hi and dear are not the same kind of word. How to Wish Someone Well in 2021. Mary needs bread, milk, and butter at the grocery store. An independent clause is a clause which could stand alone as its own sentence, because it has its own subject and verb. The addition of commas gives extra emphasis to the name. Didi may want to spend her roulette winnings on that Ferrari she always wanted. You’re right: In open punctuation there is no punctuation after the greeting and the closing. For example, this usage of “but” does not take a comma: “To quack but to have no one hear is a sad thing for a duck.”. While I understand your concern, you're abjectly wrong and I'm no longer listening to you. Use commas to offset appositives from the rest of the sentence. Sorry. The answer depends on how you are using or. 12 everyday phrases that you’re probably saying incorrectly, Another example: “Finally, I went running.”. When just two short grammatical elements are coordinated with or, do not separate them with a comma. There’s one exception to this rule. The colons, commas and other punctuation marks are instead used to great visual effect, seeming more like embellishments than grammatical requisites. Appositives act as synonyms for a juxtaposed word or phrase. The version without the Oxford comma, however, takes on an entirely different meaning, potentially suggesting that only one invitation was sent – to two strippers named JFK and Stalin. Although many consider it unnecessary, others (including Business Insider) insist on its use to reduce ambiguity. (You could also use a colon here.) Didi may want to spend her roulette winnings on that Ferrari she always wanted or a luxury vacation. 9 words and phrases people think are wrong, but are actually correct. No, you don't need a comma after Say. Didi may want to spend her roulette winnings on that Ferrari she always wanted, or she may go on a luxury vacation. Clauses that begin with “that” are usually essential to the sentence and do not require commas. The word “says” in “Joe Dane says” suggests he does so regularly. Commas are needed before coordinating conjunctions, after dependent clauses (when they precede independent clauses), and to set off appositives. And, it is often used to create division or to improve the clarity of a … If you learned in school that you should always put a comma before someone’s name, I’m very sorry to inform … Doing these 24 uncomfortable things will pay off forever, Yes, Apple just killed iTunes — here's what that means for your library of music, movies, and TV shows. Hello, Nigel, Good morning, Kendra. The mayor of New York was the first guest to arrive; … “But wait,” the Business Insider reporter wrote, “there’s more ways to use commas.”. Always place a comma before or when it begins an independent clause, but if it begins a dependent clause, don’t. In #7, I believe that “dark” is … Margie Wakeman Wells. Whether or not you should use it is a stylistic choice. It is also standard practice to put a comma after the name of the person you're addressing. That last comma, known as the serial comma, Oxford comma, or Harvard comma, causes serious controversy. …Q Did you go with her? People have been asking a good question about commas with names and salutations, so here goes: Question: Do I have to use a comma with a person’s name when I say "Hi" or "Hello"? Coordinate adjectives are two or more adjectives that describe the same noun equally. As in: “A mallard, a kind of duck, attacked me.”. A 69-year old prisoner is trying to change that one livestream at a time. If you’re trying to indicate a natural pause or inject your dialogue with some dramatic effect, commas can be your friend. Or is a coordinating conjunction, which means that it coordinates two elements of equal syntactic importance (i.e., two things of identical grammatical weight). You may need to learn a few grammatical terms to understand this one. Prisoners are 5 times more likely to get COVID-19 than the overall population. When my adviser asked to speak with me in her office in March, I figured she wanted to discuss plans for a possible lab shutdown. For example: 1. 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